Golf GPS Watches, the near future Exercise Tracking Devices

The advantages that include the GPS watch are usually:

With an array of health and fitness, health and sports gadgets available for sale, GPS allowed watches plays a notable role making use of their advanced advantages which can be encountered from most gadgets. For more details read the golf GPS watch reviews and you will get a lot of information.intercourse-golf-3d-1-b-512x250

1. On the internet data upload:
GPS running timepieces very easily syncs with on the internet applications to shop workout information at a later time analysis. This is very useful in achieving the focus on objectives in a tactical method and in addition aids in modifying the particular approaches for reaching the focuses on as planned.
2. Real-time pace information:
The GPS timepieces will notify during your run with the speed that is to be managed as preset simply by you. This pace information is very useful regarding training for a marathon or race.
3. Customizable display:
The particular display is easy to customize and may be modified to show the aspects that you feel are essential through the activity. This particular assists in quick access to the information that will you are feeling is more essential.old golf ball
4. Route sharing and mapping:
GPS NAVIGATION watches have a fantastic feature that most timepieces have, it is possible to plan and shop working routes. The particular routes planned could be shared with some other joggers. From being fun apart, this will encourage you to perform the workout even more with regard to better results.
Choosing a greatest GPS watch:
There exists a huge count associated with GPS watches easily available in the market and one that you choose depends upon numerous facts. What will you utilize the GPS watch out for and how often might it be used, will be the driving factors within deciding on a GPS health and fitness view. It is becoming difficult to choose 1 from the pile associated with GPS watches, here are some selected best GPS watches:
1. Strategy S2 Golf GPS watch:
This watch is quite advantageous with regard to golfers. It includes a sleek, lightweight style. It really is durable, accessible, reliable and incredibly precise GPS golfing view. The very best benefit that will golfer encounters with this particular golf watch will be that it’s pre-loaded along with programs around the globe and so are frequently updated. maxresdefaults2garmin
2. Forerunners 610 GPS view:
Garmin Forerunner 610 GPS view greatest suits either a good athlete or an athlete or perhaps a fitness enthusiastic to accomplish their objectives. A swipe or touch or tap will push you during your workout data. This GPS fitness view is waterproof and shock evidence.
3. Forerunner 110 view:
Garmin Forerunner 110 watch is a switch operated GPS sports activities watch. This watch was created in various colors and sizes in order to best fit for men and women. Along with FR110 sports activities view you can monitor what lengths and how fast you’re running. The facial skin of the watch is readers friendly and can be very easily accessed at any stage of time. A GPS watch forms your very best companion and trainer, whatever the purpose might be, either a health and fitness exercise or training for a marathon or perhaps a casual runner. They are in the market assisting swimmers, runners and also bicyclers.

Aside from just tracking the exercise or running activities, all of the above listed GPS timepieces can monitor your heart rate accurately. These GPS heart rate monitor timepieces when used in combination with a heart rate monitor will certainly show the center price stats and can notify you when the heart rate is beyond the particular healthful and effective heart rate zone.

What’s the Problem, Trouble Finding the Best Beginner Acoustic Guitar?

Read this article to discover the best beginner acoustic guitar that you can use. Also learn the exact starting brands and models.

Best Beginner Acoustic Guitar

Firstly, there are so many guitars out there, guitars like: acoustics, electric, bass, steel and so many others. Unfortunately, not all of these are good for the average beginner if not all.

It would be very easy for a rock fan for example, to go out and buy an electric guitar. From that point of view, it makes complete sense for a rock fan that wants to learn to play, to go out and get the guitar they see rock stars playing.

But if one is serious about playing the guitar, it would be in their best interest to get a guitar that is suitable for their playing level; especially if they are novices. Don’t get me wrong, I am not saying that the acoustic is the only one a beginner can play; it is just the easiest one to learn with.

So now you know that you need an acoustic guitar, but you are still left with the frustrating ordeal of finding the right deal, store, brand or particular model. Sounds like hard work doesn’t it, I know it does. Fortunately for you, it won’t be, since you will know exactly what you will be doing.

What kind of Acoustic Guitars?

Before you start searching for your first guitar, you have to know what you are looking for. Most popular models are:

  • Seagull S6,
  • Yamaha F310,
  • Takamine G-240,
  • Fender DG-7,
  • Epiphone DR-100
  • and many lovely models.

At this point I think I should tell you something. Since you are a rookie, and yet you want to become the ultimate guitarist, it would be wise to go with a reputable company.

The reason for this is straight forward; since you are just starting out, you do not want to experiment with bad guitars as that would be detrimental.

The brands

The brands to go for are: Yamaha, Ibanez, Fender, Gibson, Ovation, Martin and Taylor (though there are others, these ones are among the top ones).

Seagull S6

Now we know what kind, model and brand of guitar to buy. The only thing that we have left is to figure out how much and where to buy. Spend the most that you can afford, you can get a good guitar for $250 to $500. Like I said before, you need to get a good guitar if you are to have the experience you want from guitar playing.


Honestly, for a beginner, I suggest staying away from the internet, unless you know what you are doing. A music store is the best bet for you. In a music store you can negotiate with the sales person to give you a discount; you can play the guitar and get a feel of it; you can examine it thoroughly making sure that the gluing is not sloppy.

You can play on all the frets as loud as you can making sure there is no buzz sound and so many other things.

Twofish Lockblocks Reviews – Flashlight Mount for Bikes

Flashlight Mount

I have tried several bike mounts in the past and there was always some point where I felt it could be improved. The maglite mini mount was great quality but only fitted the mag. I had considered the Fenix version which looked very solid, but I wanted something which was quicker to release. I loved the locking function on Sigma lights, but unfortunately that was integrated into the torch.

I searched online and came up with the Twofish Lockblocks bike mount. This seemed to be just what I was looking for, namely a quick release function and able to carry most torch sizes.

Editor ratingflashlight bike mount
+ 8/10 great gear
+ extremely light and small
+ quick fix and release
+ fits most sizes and shapes of torches
+ suitable for rough ground
– not so easy to fix in the dark
– uncomfortable to fix in cold weather without gloves

Imagine, then, my disappointment when it arrived. It was tiny and consisted of just a small piece of rubber with a couple of Velcro straps.

After reading several positive reviews from bikers, I thought they can’t all be wrong so I tried it out this afternoon. At this point I wasn’t interested in how the bike mount performed in the dark. I merely wanted reassuring that the bike mount could even hold my torch, an olight m20 warrior premium, which is not exactly the daintiest of flashlights.

The assembly of the bike mount and torch, as shown in the video, was ingeniously simple and took seconds. I then spent 20km putting it through its paces over deep mud, normal roads, very stony bike paths up hill and down dale, deliberately riding down pavements at top speed etc. I have to stress that I do not have a mountain bike, but my bike is capable of riding on rough ground. Incredibly, for me at least, the m20 stayed where it was all the time. I occasionally checked with my hand to see that it was still holding firm – it was.

I then went out at night using lockblocks with the same torch. The good thing about this bike mount is that, because of its size, you can assemble it very close to the centre of the handlebars, thus ensuring that you have a good central beam. I deliberately chose a narrow bike path which I had not used for a long time, because I wanted to rely on the light, rather than my knowledge of the terrain. Both bike mount and torch performed sterling service here, no rattling, just a steady beam lighting up my way. I can’t praise this gadget highly enough, at least in these early days.

One final point, when you get to your destination, disassembling both flashlight and bike mount is child’s play, which is not always the case with other products (you sometimes need a tool). Another thing: because it is so tiny, you really do not notice that it is in your pocket. However, it’s not so easy putting it back together in the dark. You can’t use the torch to light things up, because it is in the bike mount! It took me about a minute to do this, so I would recommend locking your bike next to a streetlight, if possible.

As usual I will reserve judgment on this product to see how it operates over a longer period, under adverse weather conditions etc, but for the moment it seems to be just what I was looking for.

Continue testing…

I purchased this Flashlight Bicycle Mount in December 2013 after putting it through some rigorous tests. I’ve used it several times since and it has worked very well. To be on the safe side, I thought it would be interesting to see how it performs under heavy-duty circumstances so I enlisted the help of Chris, a friend and colleague.

Bike Gears: Twofish Lockblocks Reviews

Chris is an avid mountain-biker and rides in all weathers. He spent three hours putting it through its paces. The terrain was stony, often steep and very uneven, as opposed to the rather smoother and flatter bike paths which I had used. Chris confirmed that the bike mount performed well and held the torch firmly in place.

Many thanks, Chris!

What are the Advantages of Essential Oils?

Essential oils can benefit you in so many ways that it’s almost impossible to pinpoint any one thing that they do. They can help with the health of your body and mind, beauty care, house cleaning, can be used as pesticides, the list goes on.

Their versatility is one of the things that makes them so useful. You can buy a bottle of lavender oil and use it for at least two dozen different things which means that you get both quality and quantity from it. That totally makes up for the fairly expensive price that a bottle of quality, 100% pure lavender oil is. Or any other type of essential oil for that matter.



What Are the Disadvantages?

The only real downside is that they don’t have a very long shelf life and they also have to be kept in a specific manner or they lose even more of their already short shelf life. So plan ahead when you buy essential oils. Go ahead and get appropriate sized amber bottles and anything else that you need to keep them from losing their effectiveness. It’s another expense but it’s well worth it, and it’s only a one-time expense too. Unless you break the bottles you shouldn’t have to re-buy anything.

Also decide on a plan for where you’re going to store your oils. One good option is the fridge so that they can stay cold and away from sunlight. Heat and sunlight are what makes them lose their potency; when stored in the fridge they can stay viable for twice as long. Especially if you live in a tropical or subtropical climate in which your house probably stays very warm most of the year.

It’s particularly smart to keep citrus essential oils in the fridge as they will barely last a year even in the best of conditions.

Physical and Mental Well Being

  • Vigilance: There have been numerous studies and documentations on essential oils and vigilance. The common thread of thought is that juniper and peppermint essential oils can increase your vigilance, making you more aware of what is going on around you and increasing your observation and memory skills.
  • Sleeping: Lavender oil is often included in baby lotions because of it’s calming and sleep aiding properties. Although it’s great for adults who need to get some rest too. You can apply it to your feet or you can diffuse it in your bedroom. It smells delicious and is very beneficial in calming you down so you can drift off to sleep. Just the scent of it alone is likely to give off calming vibes to you.
  • Unwind time: Many people have trouble winding down especially if they have had a long day of hard mental work and are feeling restless or stressed. If you’re one of these people you could greatly benefit from geranium or orange oils.
  • Continued Focus: If you have trouble concentrating after spending hours on one specific task you might want to see if basil will benefit you. People with ADD may especially benefit from diffusing basil when they need to focus.

Focusing can be hard for everyone at one point or another but people with ADD have chronic focus and concentration problems; it’s not just an occasional issue for people who have ADD. Anything that can be used to benefit an ADD sufferer would be worth a shot.

Household Cleaning

While most people have at least heard of the positive effects essential oils can bring to your health, most people have never heard of cleaning with essential oils. You might ask how cleaning with them works when essential oils are so expensive, but it’s the same as when you use them for anything – you dilute them first. In this case you dilute them by adding them to your normal cleaning products.

It’s also the same in that it only takes a small amount. Don’t forget that they’re strong, so don’t underestimate their power and use more than you have to. it won’t hurt anything per se but it will be a waste of money when less does the job just as well.

Lemon Essential Oil and Cleaning

You’ve probably heard that lemon juice is a great cleaner due to it’s acidic nature. Well, the same holds true for lemon essential oil. It’s really effective on dirt, grease and stains. Just add a few drops to your usual cleaning product, get a rag and scrub away and the impurities. It will really leave your floors or counter-tops clean and shiny and will also kill any bacteria or mold that’s there.

They can improve your life in so many areas if you just take the time to do a little bit of research and start applying them where you desire!

Benefits of Essential Oils

Find the Time

Overall, people tend to just not think about essential oils even if they do have some knowledge of their benefits. It’s not at the center of their mind when they have so many other things going on. Ironically, essential oils could help you when you have a lot going on and are feeling frazzled and worn out. It’s like how eating healthy is really important at any time but particularly important when you’re worn down. Healthy food boosts your immune system and helps prevents you from getting ill.

Well, it’s the same general idea with essential oils – except that essential oils also have the added bonus of being capable of calming you, ensuring a good night’s sleep, helping you remember things, improving your focus, and so on. These are exactly the sort of things you could use when you’re doing too much and feeling the stress from it. Therefore, stop putting off getting essential oils. Put it on your to-do list for today and purchase the essential oils that you think will be most beneficial for you.

Hair and Beauty

These are just a few health and beauty tips using essential oils. There are hundreds more out there so if you’re looking for a particular fix or treatment that isn’t on the list, just do a search online. You’re sure to come up with some results.

  • Scars: No one likes to have scars. It’s always a concern when you receive a particularly bad wound, especially if that wound is on your face or another prominent area of your body. Even the littlest scar can make you feel self conscious about your appearance.

So it’s really beneficial to dab some essential oils on the wound which will aid in keeping it bacteria-free. That should prevent infection which will ensure that the wound heals quickly and, thus, decreases the risks of scarring. Tea tree, thyme, and oregano are excellent for this purpose. They have disinfection properties and will promote natural, healthy healing of your skin.

If you already have scars that you want to minimize you can try lavender or geranium oils. You will want to apply them at least a couple of times per day or as often as five times per day.

  • Eczema: One of the most annoying skin issues is eczema. In bad cases it can really start affecting your life. You might not be able to shower or wash your hands when you’d like to because of the affect water and soap can have on eczema. You might have to avoid wearing clothing that irritates your eczema and you may want to cover it up so no one can see your red patchy skin.

Many people spend an absolute fortune on special lotions, soaps, moisturizers, shampoos, conditioners, and a plethora of other products in order to get rid of it and still nothing works! Essential oils are often very effective, however. Tea tree oil is established as an effective treatment and source of relief for eczema and lavender is also a great choice as it has anti inflammatory properties as well as the ability to soothe and moisturize your skin.

  • Acne is another blemish everyone would like to avoid. Everybody gets acne from time to time but one thing you can do to help prevent it is by mixing a carrier oil such as olive oil or jojoba oil with essential oils that are beneficial in preventing acne. Oils such as tea tree, lemongrass, geranium and cedarwood are generally effective.

Alternatively, you can directly apply tea tree or lavender oil via a cotton ball onto acne. This is one case where it’s permissible to use essential oils without diluting them. It’s a technique called “neat”. However, it can cause skin irritation and discomfort. If this occurs stop using the “neat” technique with that particular essential oil.

Add Them to Your Products

You aren’t required to solely use carrier oils to mix essential oils with, you can add essential oils to most of your existing products. Shampoo, conditioner, lotion, aloe vera gel, toothpaste…just about anything you can think of! It’s wise to do a quick search online to make sure it’s safe, though.

Just make sure you don’t add essential oils to anything that would be considered unsafe. For instance, there are several essential oils that are considered phototoxic, meaning they can’t be applied if you’re going to be in direct sunlight in the next 12 hours to 24 hours due to the toxic reaction they cause when exposed to UV rays. So it would obviously not be a good idea to add, for example, grapefruit oil to your suncream.

Citrus oils are most prominent for phototoxicity but it’s important to note that not all citrus oils are. Of the citrus oils typically sold, only lemon, lime, grapefruit, bitter orange, petitgrain and bergamot are phototoxic.

What is the old or vintage “McCulloch” Chainsaw?

Background of “McCulloch” Chainsaw

The “McCulloch” is a branded name of chainsaw.  view more information best electric chainsaw .The “McCulloch” belongs to a long history. It was 1948, when Robert “McCulloch” invented the single individual chainsaw. He was the first person who brought about a revolutionary change in the field of industry and the way of logging. There is no use of two-man team group or team to chop down trees, now one single individual or operator can easily cut down trees easily. Any single individual can cut tree, log, concrete, stone, and many more things with the help of a light or powerful chainsaw. On the research of 29 years, he added a new dimension or added innovations in the chainsaw market. The year was 1964 when for the first time he began a considerable manufacturing plant within Lake Havasu Town, Arizona making American created McCullochs. Unfortunately, in 1999 January, McCullochs Company got bankrupt and sealed its doors. That was the historical close down of the American made qualified chainsaws. In 2003, a new light of hope became known. A Taiwan company bought the “McCulloch” name and since then the name has gone through many company owners. That is the real reason why you may be willing to buy a chainsaw with the name at present but you will not get highly qualified one.

Husqvarna 395xp Chainsaw

Why do you need “McCulloch” Chainsaw or not?

If you are an unique user or an excellent operator, then it will not require achieving a highly potent chainsaw. You can finish your garden work at the weekend. You may get away with finishing simple trimming, edging, and mowing to hold your front-back garden to look nice. At worst, you may require to operate a handsaw to cut down un-useful branches. Nevertheless, the individuals or groups who need to complete a paramount task, related cutting, they need such powerful chainsaws. They may need to get old “McCulloch” chainsaw. Such large groups have to perform some difficult tasks and for this old “McCulloch” chainsaw is mostly suitable for them.

chain saw

Validity of “McCulloch” Chainsaw

Sometime the parts of old “McCulloch” chainsaw are not easy to get at hand. If you get the parts of old, “McCulloch” chainsaw then you may treat for it. While operating your tasks with such old classical parts of chainsaw, you must take a great care of these parts to cut down or to complete your tasks. The old “McCulloch” chainsaw is usable repeatedly day after day and even years. However, at present the new “McCulloch” chainsaw is easy to collect from your nearest shop. With the new “McCulloch” chainsaw, you can use it just for simple amount of time and finally have to throw away.

Models of “McCulloch” Chainsaws that you may need to change

“McCulloch” generated chainsaws for over 5 decades, having many fashions. Much of the most liked ones, tend to be the Pro Macintosh, Mini Macintosh, Powerhouse, and Jumbo Pro. However, clothes only a few coming from the list. Therefore, it is important to get the unearth “McCulloch” chainsaw parts to exchange and to fix a majority of these classic chainsaws, when it is necessary.

The Basics of Machine quilting

Throughout my quilting career I have quilted on both a domestic (tabletop) and a longarm machine. I’d like to take a moment to debunk the myth that a longarm machine is a magical tool that produces amazing quilting. A longarm quilting machine does make machine quilting more convenient and efficient. However, it is not necessary to use a longarm machine to achieve beautiful quilting. Everything in this article can be done on either a domestic or a longarm machine. The quality of the quilting is dependent on you and your ability to freehand draw the designs that you choose to quilt, not on the technology of the machine that you are using.



Quilting Feet

For free-motion quilting you will need a free-motion or darning foot for your machine My favorite ones have a clear ring or oval that presses against the fabric as you sew. These are great because they enable you to see where you are going. Usually the circle on the bottom of the foot has a relatively accurate measurement of 1/4 inch in radius, which can come in handy as a spacer when you are echo quilting. Each brand of sewing machine has specific feet that will fit on it. See your local sewing machine dealer to get the correct foot for your personal machine
Your Working Style & Your Work Space
One of the biggest complaints about machine quilting is the difficulty of maneuvering a large quilt under the short arm of a domestic sewing machine. You will notice throughout this book that my working style is to quilt in continuous paths whenever possible. This enables me to roll the quilt so that just the path I need is exposed. I can start at one end of the quilt and sew one design, non-stop, until I reach the other end of the quilt. I hate to start and stop, so I try to do it as little as possible. Remember, our goal is to get these quilts finished!


Your workstation can be either fancy or simple as long as it has a flat surface behind and to the Left of your sewing machine large enough to hold the weight of your entire quilt as you sew. I quilt at my kitchen table with my sewing machine located at the front right corner of the table. When I have an especially large quilt I add another table to the back of my kitchen table to increase the surface area. I also like to use an extended base on my sewing machine when I’m quilting. This extra surface allows me to maintain better control over the area I’m quilting
If your quilt seems to be sticking to the extended base, wipe the base with a small amount of Pledge cleaner and the surface will become slicker. As you would after contact with any chemical, be sure to wash your quilt when completed to remove any residue.



Guiding Your Quilt

When free-motion quilting, you will need to make a frame using your hands. This allows you to maintain control over the space that you are quilting and holds the three quilt layers in place as you sew Always maintain a good frame with constant pressure as you quilt. Do not grab the quilt and pull it as you work, this will only distort the quilting and shift the layers out of alignment. You will need something to put on your hands to help grip the fabric as you sew Most common are quilting gloves or rubber fingertips. I also like to put lotion on my hands or use the pink finger moistener found in business supply stores. Please use these with caution and wash your quilt after it is finished to remove any oily residue.

A Meal-Making Machine

Almost halt the world’s population makes the ancient grain a staple in their diets. It is nutritious, inexpensive, versatile, and easy to Store and cook. Today, we in the United States are eating more and more of this cholesterol- arid gluten-free food—which is low in sodium, very low in fat, and rich in complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. What’s more, unhulled (a.k.a. brown) rice is an excellent source of dietary fiber.

Rice Cooker

Eating more rice means cooking more rice in our own kitchens. The major problem with cooking rice at home is that most gas or electric stove burners do not turn down to a true simmer. So when the rice has finished boiling and it’s time to steam the grains over a small, steady heat source, most people end up burning, or at best, scorching their rice. They either misjudge when to turn down the heat source or they cannot turn the burner down low enough to steam the rice. Instead, they end up boiling it.

In the U.S.—where parboiled, dehydrated rice, frozen rice in-a-bag, or rice cooked pasta style, with lots of water that is later drained off, is often the norm—people marvel at the delicious taste, fragrant aroma, and perfect texture of rice served in Asian restaurants and homes. They wonder why they cannot duplicate that perfect rice in their own kitchen. The answer they seek, the real secret to perfect, foolproof rice, is not the cook, but rather, the electric rice cooker. Rice cooking traditionally calls for measuring X amount of rice and X amount of water and heating them together for X amount of time.


Rice cookers, also called rice steamers, make this deceptively simple process really, truly and reliably simple by handling all the Xs. A cook measures the amount of rice and fills water to the water level line corresponding to the amount of rice, puts it inside the automated counter top appliance, and pushes a button to turn the device on. The rice cooker heats the rice and water until all the water has either been absorbed or evaporated. The rice cooker takes its cues from the boiling water, which maintains a constant temperature (212°F or 1OOC, at sea level). Once cooking completes and the water is absorbed by the rice, the temperature change signals the device to keep the rice warm and ready to serve for several hours. With an automated rice cooker, burned grains on the bottom of a pot are almost impossible. Scorched rice is history.


Speaking of history, rice cookers owe their history to the Japanese, for whom rice cooking is a serious art. From its early development in the 1950s, the basic electric rice cooker has become increasingly more advanced, with the introduction of micro computerization, which allows for multiple cooking settings for multiple types of rice, as well as other grains and foods.
In Japan, the word for cooked rice is also the word for meal. It follows then that rice cookers are also meal cookers. So, we home cooks benefit from rice cookers’ ever-advancing ability to serve up perfectly hot, fluffy rice. But we may benefit even more from the devices’ versatility in cooking, not only every rice dish we can shake a wooden spoon at, but also non- rice recipes. Rice cookers also cook hot cereals, desserts, soups, and stews, as well as poach fruits, and steam vegetables and meats. Think of it: An entire meal in just one pot.

Food and nutrition

Food and nutrition

Nutrition is a subject which has firmly entered our general awareness today. From the growth of obesity in wealthy western societies to the quality of our food and the way it is produced, what and how we eat has become a subject of debate at all levels from government policy-makers to the home. Healthy eating has become just as much part of the debate around ecological lifestyles, sustainable agriculture, intensive farming and animal rearing, the value of organic foods and how we treat the planet as the overarching quest ions associated with global warming and the future of human development.


Ecological Issues

Rudolf Steiner may not yet in his day have had to grapple with wider ecological issues such as whether it is more ecologically sound to fly beans thousands of miles from Africa to European markets than to grow them closer to home in the colder European climate using hot houses which may leave just as large a carbon footprint because of the energy needed to heat them, but nutrition as a subject was well established. The investigation of the composition of foods and the effect on health of proper amounts of substances like carbohydrates, minerals, fats and proteins had started in its modern form in the mid-eighteenth century.
In 1770, Antoine Lavoisier, the ‘Father of Nutrition and Chemistry’, discovered the actual process by which food is metabolized. In the early 1800s the discovery was made that foods are composed primarily of four elements—carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen—and methods were developed for determining the amounts of these elements. In the mid-nineteenth century the German chemist Justus Liebig undertook influential work on plant and animal physiology. It is worth noting that chemistry, along with the natural sciences and mathematics, was one of the subjects studied by Steiner during his student days in Vienna.


Scientific and Medical Research into Nutrition

Yet while scientific and medical research into nutrition and healthy or harmful diets has, of course, moved on again in the 90 odd years since Steiner was lecturing on the subject, what is also clear is that one thing has not altered: the extent to which nutritional advice still keeps changing and sometimes contradicting itself as new research throws a different light on previously accepted axioms with regard to what is healthy or not so healthy for us to eat. That this was already an issue in Steiner’s day is illustrated in his example of the daily portions of protein which it is advisable to eat.
Just like the delicate balance of our external natural environment, where an action in one part may have unexpected, not to say unintended, consequences in another, the human being also represents a cohesive and integrated ‘sphere’, both as a physical and a spiritual being. In this sense any dietary recommendation may produce unexpected results, which may not always be immediately apparent. And this is where Steiner goes far beyond current nutritional research (which is largely restricted to the effect of substances at a material level) in that he investigates the effect of foods on the whole human being at a much more fundamental level, including the spiritual elements permeating the physical body. In this way he avoids the potentially unexpected consequences of a one-sided materialistic perspective.
This approach gives his results a significance that has not lost any of its relevance, and is much more subtle. It recognizes that protein, for example, may have different effects depending on its source and that not only is the physical health of the human being influenced by the kind of food we eat, but also our spiritual well-being. In this wider view, eating the right kinds of food can either promote or hinder our development as whole human beings.


In terms of its structure, the book moves from the more general view to the particular. In the early chapters, Steiner describes nutrition and substances in the wider context of the human being as a spiritual entity and, indeed, against a cosmic background. On this basis, the later chapters then describe the actions and effects of particular types of food in greater detail. These lectures were given to different types of audience; some were made up of the general public while others were mainly anthroposophists following a path of spiritual development, so the tone also varies from the more general to the more intimate.
One thing which emerges clearly in all that Rudolf Steiner says about nutrition is that he never wishes to be prescriptive.

At no point does he try and tell his audience what they should or should not be eating, whether or not they should follow a vegetarian diet, whether they should or should not smoke or drink alcohol. He repeatedly states that it is not his task to tell people what to eat or how to behave. The job of the scientist is to explain how things act and their effect—what people then do with that knowledge is entirely up to them. One reason for this may lie in the fact that the effects of a particular diet can be influenced by the particular circumstances of the individual. It may be better for a person to eat a meat diet, for example, at a certain stage of his life, and blanket prescriptions are simply beside the point because they leave the individual out of consideration.

But more fundamentally Steiner here, as elsewhere, never wishes to impinge on the freedom of the individual. Each person must recognize what is the appropriate diet for him at any given time. Although, as Steiner also points out, people in our modern age have increasingly lost the instinct for what is good or bad for them to eat, that is no reason for him to be prescriptive. It is up to each of us individually to work out what is the right course of action in our particular situation. Our diet not only determines our physical well-being, but can also promote or hinder our inner spiritual development. What Steiner wishes to do is give us the tools that can help us to understand how we can best promote our physical health and spiritual progress.

Three Bio-realms: Biotechnology and the Governance of Food, Health and Life

Netzvored Biotech Governance Interests and Democraci

The scientific disciplines, professionals, and expertise relevant to biotechnology for food, health, and human life spread out over several government and non-governmental organizations. In the language of Ottawa central agencies, biotechnology has a high degree of ‘horizontality’ or interdependence as a policy field and hence in its governance. Of course, as we have emphasized in the discussion here, such horizontality is no guarantee of easy coordination, seamless coherence in policy, or, for that matter, high priority on the federal agenda as a national issue.

Any political account of the forces driving or constraining biogovernance needs to deal with networked bio-govemance interests and democracy — the second element in our analytical framework — the key features and attributes of which include:
business interests in bio-food, bio-health, and bio-life;
• finance and capital interests and needs for biotech firms;
• NGO interests (consumer, health, environmental, social);
• individuals, identity, and public opinion;
• science as the quintessential network;
• government departments and agencies as interests;
• quasi-public-sector arm’s-length entities as interests: universities,
hospitals, foundations, and research labs and granting agencies; and
• diverse overlapping notions of democracy.

The commercialization of human genetics poses basic questions of what is ‘normal’ in our society, in a debate that organizations of and for persons with disabilities have certainly entered, along with other groups (Caulfield 1996; Prince 2009; Reiss and Straughan 1996; Turney 1998). In addition, there is the complexity of ‘interests within interests,’ such as differing perspectives by physicians from the medical associations and from Health Canada or even from within a government portfolio such as Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Thus there are changing notions of what medical power is. Doctors are still at the centre of many aspects of health-system governance but they are also increasingly networked with related health professions, with the drug industry and with health seen as an industry rather than just as a health-care sector, an ‘industry’ that includes health researchers in universities and in the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and other research institutes. This extended value diversity and differentiated system of networked power is both a policy reality and a governance test to face.


NGO interest

The ‘density’ of the NGO interest in the biotechnology policy community — the number and range of types of groups involved in a given sector appears to vary across sectors of the Canadian economy. This variation in stakeholder engagement was initially evident in the sector consultations for the Biotechnology Strategy Renewal exercise done between 1996 and 1998. Some sectors, such as aquatics, forestry, and mining and energy identified in their consultation reports a limited number of third-sector stakeholders: university academics and scientists, and environmental and consumer public interest associations. Other sectors reported responses to their consultation documents from a much wider and deeper network of stakeholders, such as the environmental, agricultural and agro-food, and health sectors.

Consumer interests are a significant part of this large array of NGO interests. Indeed, they were a crucial presence in the initial evolution of the bio-food realm (Knoppers and Mathios 1998). Discussions of consumer interests in general and in later bio-governance periods necessarily bring out the ultimate complexity and nuanced nature of what actually is the modern consumer-citizen (Doern and Wilks 2007; Locke 1998; Middleton 1998). The consumer is best seen as being always hyphenated with some aspect of his or her role as citizen and as economic and social actor. These hyphenated roles range from the individual buyer-consumer to the environmental-consumer concerned about how goods and services are made, and the private and public goods consumer with views about balances between public and private goods.
In the bio-life realm, we will see how these extensions of citizenship and what the use and consumption of products might mean increasingly embrace a politics and bio-governance centered on the views and strengths of women’s groups and coalitions, and with varied kinds of individual identity. Attention is also paid to engagement through public opinion surveys, focus groups, and Internet-based mobilization and communication.

Government department

Government departments and agencies vary when it comes to which consumer groups or institutions and also smaller subgroups tend most to engage with them and criticize them. For example, in the fair labeling practices area of the CFIA, the Centre for Science in the Public Interest has been a regular participant, as have Quebec-based groups such as the Union des consummators and Option consummators. The Consumers Council of Canada and the Canadian Consumers Association have had some, but less regular, involvement. Arguably, it is in Health Canada’s institutional realm for bio-health and other mandate aspects that consumer subgroups are the most diverse and particularized. Basic subgroups here start with an overall division among patients, drug users, and special health sub-populations needing both market-based products and public services. Within and across these three categories there are any number of disease-focused groups and voluntary sector bodies dealing with bio-health and bio-life issues, as well as other issues such as AIDs, arthritis, cancer, and diabetes.
In the end, there is an explicit need to examine government departments and agencies as interests. Defined broadly, this set of public sector interests also includes universities, hospitals, foundations, research labs, and federal research-granting agencies such as the Networks of Centres of Excellence program, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and its virtual reality institutes and peer-review panels.

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